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The Dipsadinae [Also known as the Xenodontinae] can be found throughout the new world. These are diurnal hunters (with long muscular bodies and slender heads) or nocturnal hunters/searchers (with slender bodies and blunt, over-sized heads). Clutch size is highly variable (directly associated with body size). Four species can be found in Ohio: Diadophis punctatus edwardsi (northern ringneck snake), Heterodon platyrhinos (eastern hognose snake, above left and bottom-right), Carphophis amoenus amoenus (eastern worm snake, above center and upper-right), and Carphophis amoenus helenae (midwest worm snake).
Viperidae, the vipers, includes 3 subfamilies: Azemiopionae, Crotalinae, and Viperinae, with a total of 40 genera. Vipers have a world-wide distribution with the exception of Papuaustrailia and the oceanic islands. These are highly venomous snakes with highly derived fang-apparati (solenogyphous fangs, the maxilla is highly kinetic). Many vipers have cranial infrared receptors in loreal pits or beneath scale surface (as opposed to the interlabial pits of old-snakes) and many of the more-derived species also have rattles. There are 3 Ohio species (pictures to be added soon - camera malfunction): Agkistrodon contortrix mokasan (northern copperhead: mokasan), Sistrurus catenatus catenatus (eastern massassauga), and Crotalus horridus (timber rattlesnake). The massassauga rattlesnake is wet/prairie specialist, while timber rattlesnake is hardwood-forest specialist; copperheads lack rattles.
Elapidae (pictures to be added soon - camera malfunction) - (southern North America to southern South America, Africa, southern Asia to southeastern Australia, and the tropical Indian and Pacific oceans) some of the most highly venomous snakes and includes many marine taxa. There are two sub-families: Elapinae includes the cobras, mombas, crates, and the Hydrophiinae, which includes the sea snakes (recognizable by their reduced ventral scales and laterally flattened caudal regions; adaptations obtained in the move from land to back to water). Elapinaes are primarily terrestrial, some are arboreal and fossorial.